contrasts {stats} R Documentation

## Get and Set Contrast Matrices

### Description

Set and view the contrasts associated with a factor.

### Usage

```contrasts(x, contrasts = TRUE)
contrasts(x, how.many) <- value
```

### Arguments

 `x` a factor or a logical variable. `contrasts` logical. See Details. `how.many` How many contrasts should be made. Defaults to one less than the number of levels of `x`. This need not be the same as the number of columns of `ctr`. `value` either a numeric matrix whose columns give coefficients for contrasts in the levels of `x`, or the (quoted) name of a function which computes such matrices.

### Details

If contrasts are not set for a factor the default functions from `options("contrasts")` are used.

A logical vector `x` is converted into a two-level factor with levels `c(FALSE, TRUE)` (regardless of which levels occur in the variable).

The argument `contrasts` is ignored if `x` has a matrix `contrasts` attribute set. Otherwise if `contrasts = TRUE` it is passed to a contrasts function such as `contr.treatment` and if `contrasts = FALSE` an identity matrix is returned.

### References

Chambers, J. M. and Hastie, T. J. (1992) Statistical models. Chapter 2 of Statistical Models in S eds J. M. Chambers and T. J. Hastie, Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

`C`, `contr.helmert`, `contr.poly`, `contr.sum`, `contr.treatment`; `glm`, `aov`, `lm`.

### Examples

```example(factor)
fff <- ff[, drop=TRUE]  # reduce to 5 levels.
contrasts(fff) # treatment contrasts by default
contrasts(C(fff, sum))
contrasts(fff, contrasts = FALSE) # the 5x5 identity matrix

contrasts(fff) <- contr.sum(5); contrasts(fff)  # set sum contrasts
contrasts(fff, 2) <- contr.sum(5); contrasts(fff)  # set 2 contrasts
# supply 2 contrasts, compute 2 more to make full set of 4.
contrasts(fff) <- contr.sum(5)[,1:2]; contrasts(fff)
```

[Package stats version 2.2.1 Index]