lag.zoo {zoo} | R Documentation |

## Lags and Differences of zoo Objects

### Description

Methods for computing lags and differences of `"zoo"`

objects.

### Usage

## S3 method for class 'zoo':
lag(x, k = 1, na.pad = FALSE, ...)
## S3 method for class 'zoo':
diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, arithmetic = TRUE, na.pad = FALSE, ...)

### Arguments

`x` |
a `"zoo"` object. |

`k, lag` |
the number of lags (in units of observations).
Note the sign of `k` behaves as in `lag` . |

`differences` |
an integer indicating the order of the difference. |

`arithmetic` |
logical. Should arithmetic (or geometric) differences be computed? |

`na.pad` |
logical. If `TRUE` it adds any times that would not otherwise have been in
the result with a value of `NA` . If `FALSE` those times are dropped. |

`...` |
currently not used. |

### Details

These methods for `"zoo"`

objects behave analogously to the default
methods. The only additional arguments are `arithmetic`

in `diff`

`na.pad`

in `lag.zoo`

which can also be specified in `diff.zoo`

as part of the dots.
Also, `"k"`

can be a vector of lags in which case the names of
`"k"`

, if any, are used in naming the result.

### Value

The lagged or differenced `"zoo"`

object.

### Note

Note the sign of `k`

: a series lagged by a positive `k`

is shifted *earlier* in time.

### See Also

`zoo`

, `lag`

, `diff`

### Examples

x <- zoo(11:21)
lag(x, k = 1)
lag(x, k = -1)
# this pairs each value of x with the next or future value
merge(x, lag1 = lag(x, k=1))
diff(x^2)
diff(x^2, na.pad = TRUE)

[Package

*zoo* version 1.0-5

Index]