lag.zoo {zoo}R Documentation

Lags and Differences of zoo Objects


Methods for computing lags and differences of "zoo" objects.


## S3 method for class 'zoo':
lag(x, k = 1, na.pad = FALSE, ...)
## S3 method for class 'zoo':
diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, arithmetic = TRUE, na.pad = FALSE, ...)


x a "zoo" object.
k, lag the number of lags (in units of observations). Note the sign of k behaves as in lag.
differences an integer indicating the order of the difference.
arithmetic logical. Should arithmetic (or geometric) differences be computed?
na.pad logical. If TRUE it adds any times that would not otherwise have been in the result with a value of NA. If FALSE those times are dropped.
... currently not used.


These methods for "zoo" objects behave analogously to the default methods. The only additional arguments are arithmetic in diff na.pad in lag.zoo which can also be specified in diff.zoo as part of the dots. Also, "k" can be a vector of lags in which case the names of "k", if any, are used in naming the result.


The lagged or differenced "zoo" object.


Note the sign of k: a series lagged by a positive k is shifted earlier in time.

See Also

zoo, lag, diff


x <- zoo(11:21)

lag(x, k = 1)
lag(x, k = -1)
# this pairs each value of x with the next or future value
merge(x, lag1 = lag(x, k=1))
diff(x^2, na.pad = TRUE)

[Package zoo version 1.0-5 Index]